Solvay, Ernest

Solvay, Ernest
SUBJECT AREA: Chemical technology
[br]
b. 16 April 1838 Rebcq, near Brussels, Belgium
d. 26 May 1922 Brussels, Belgium
[br]
Belgian manufacturer, first successfully to produce soda by the ammonia-soda process.
[br]
From the beginning of the nineteenth century, soda had been manufactured by the Leblanc process. Important though it was, serious drawbacks had shown themselves early on. The worst was the noxious alkali waste left after the extraction of the soda, in such large quantities that two tons of waste were produced for one of soda. The first attempt to work out an alternative process was by the French scientist and engineer A.J. Fresnel, but it failed. The process consisted essentially of passing carbon dioxide into a solution of ammonia in brine (sodium chloride). The product, sodium bicarbonate, could easily be converted to soda by heating. For over half a century, practical difficulties, principally the volatility of the ammonia, dogged the process and a viable solution eluded successive chemists, including James Muspratt and William Deacon.
Finally, Ernest Solvay and his brother Alfred tackled the problem, and in 1861 they filed a Belgian patent for improvements, notably the introduction of a carbonating tower, which made the process continuous. The first works were set up at Couillet in 1863, but four further years of hard work were still needed to overcome teething troubles. Once the Solvay ammonia-soda process was working well, it made rapid strides. It was introduced into Britain in 1872 under licence to Ludwig Mond and four years later Solvay opened the large Dombaske works in France.
Solvay was a member of the Belgian Senate and a Minister of State. International institutes of physics, chemistry and sociology are named after him.
[br]
Further Reading
P.Heger and C.Lefebvre, 1919, La vie d'Ernest Solvay.
Obituary, 1922, Ind. Eng. Chem. : 1,156.
LRD

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Solvay, Ernest — (1838 1922)    Born at Rebecq Rognon on 16 April 1838, Ernest Solvay showed an early interest in scientific subjects, most especially chemistry, physics, and natural history. Prevented by illness from attending university, he took a position in… …   Historical Dictionary of Brussels

  • Solvay, Ernest — ▪ Belgian chemist born , April 16, 1838, Rebecqu Rognon, near Brussels, Belg. died May 26, 1922, Brussels       Belgian industrial chemist, best known for his development of a commercially viable ammonia soda process for producing soda ash… …   Universalium

  • Solvay , Ernest — (1838–1922) Belgian industrial chemist Solvay was born at Rebecq Rognon in Belgium. As the son of a salt refiner and the nephew of a manager of a gas plant, he was introduced at an early age to the techniques and problems of the chemical industry …   Scientists

  • Solvay, Ernest — ► (1838 1922) Industrial y químico belga. Inventó el método Solvay …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ernest Et Alfred Solvay — Ernest Solvay Pour les articles homonymes, voir Solvay. Ernest Solvay vers 1900 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ernest et Alfred Solvay — Ernest Solvay Pour les articles homonymes, voir Solvay. Ernest Solvay vers 1900 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ernest et alfred solvay — Ernest Solvay Pour les articles homonymes, voir Solvay. Ernest Solvay vers 1900 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ernest Solvay — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Ernest Solvay Ernest Solvay (c1900) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Solvay — Solvay, Ernest Solvay, método …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Solvay — (Ernest) (1838 1922) industriel et philanthrope belge. Il inventa la fabrication industrielle du carbonate de sodium, créa une importante société chimique, fonda des établissements d enseignement scientifique et des associations philanthropiques …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Solvay-Kongress — Walther Nernst, Initiator der Solvay Konferenz Solvay Konferenzen ist der Name von internationalen Fachkonferenzen auf dem Gebiet der Physik. Die 23. und vorläufig letzte Solvay Konferenz fand vom 1. bis 3. Dezember 2005 in Brüssel mit dem Thema… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”